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Harvard Referencing

Guide to the style of Harvard referencing required by Doncaster College.

Direct citaction

Citing an author's name directly in the text

Give the author’s surname followed by the date of publication in brackets.

The direct citation style is more personal than the indirect style as it often requires reporting verbs such as: believes, states, according to, outlines, describes etc. which provides an opportunity for critical analysis.

 

Example of a direct citation within the text one author - Paraphrasing

In his study of acting Cohen (2002) believes that throughout history, verse or poetry has been a major form of dramatic language.

Example of a direct citation within the text one author – Direct quote

 According to Cohen (2002) “style is not only something one performs in the theatre, it is something we all do in life” (p. 7).

Indirect citation

Citing an author's name indirectly in the text

Put the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets at the appropriate point – usually the end of the sentence.

The indirect citation style is often used to make reading easier.  However, it is harder to provide critical analysis without using a reporting verb. Most indirect citations are used back up assertions, this can indicate a lesser level of critical analysis.

 

Example of an indirect citation within the text one author - Paraphrasing

Throughout history, verse or poetry has been a major form of dramatic language (Cohen, 2002).

Example of an indirect citation within the text one author – Direct quote

“style is not only something one performs in the theatre, it is something we all do in life” (Cohen 2002, p. 7).