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Harvard Referencing

Guide to the style of Harvard referencing required by Doncaster College.

Television Programmes or Off-air recordings

Example of citation within the text - Paraphrasing

In Shrek (2004) ....


Channel Four (2004) shows that.....


Kids in crisis (2018) highlight....


Example of how the reference for this source should appear:

Offf-air recordings

Shrek (2004) Directed by Andrew Anderson and Vicky Jenson.  Off-air recording. 7 February 2009. [Video: DVD]


Channel Four (2004) Atlantic Britain.  Off-air recording. 21 August. [Video: VHS].


Episode of a TV programme (watched live or streamed)
Kids in Crisis (2018) Panorama, series 27, episode 33.  Directed by Jenny Parks, [TV Programme], BBC One. 24 September, 20:30.


Television & Off-air recordings - points to note

The following format should be used when referencing

 pre-recorded Film DVDs

Title (Year) Directed by director's name. Off-air recording.  Date of recording. [Video: Format] Name of Channel (Year) Title. Off-air recording.  Date of recording. [Video: Format]

an episode of a TV programme

Episode title (Year of first broadcast) Programme title, series and episode numbers. Directed by Director name. Written by Writer name (if known) [TV programme]. TV channel (or service if online only). Broadcast day and month, time.


Points to Note.

  • The year in brackets refers to the year the film was released not the year it was broadcast.
  • If the item is an off-air recording of a television programme the broadcaster is treated as a corporate author.