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Harvard Referencing

Guide to the style of Harvard referencing required by Doncaster College.

Direct Citations

Citing an author's name directly in the text

Give the author’s surname followed by the date of publication in brackets.

The direct citation style is more personal than the indirect style as it often requires reporting verbs such as: believes, states, according to, outlines, describes etc. which provides an opportunity for critical analysis.


Indirect citations

Citing an author's name indirectly in the text

Put the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets at the appropriate point – usually the end of the sentence.

The indirect citation style is often used to make reading easier.  However, it is harder to provide critical analysis without using a reporting verb. Most indirect citations are used back up assertions, this can indicate a lesser level of critical analysis.